Background: Mutations in SOX6 have recently been recognized as a new molecular cause of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by intellectual disability, behavioral changes, and nonspecific facial and digital skeletal abnormalities. To date, <25 cases have been reported in the literature.
Methods and findings: Here we report a new case of SOX6-associated neurodegeneration and expand the phenotype to include ceratoconus. The clinical picture consisted of early onset mildly reduced intellectual function, facial asymmetry, and dystonic tremor of hands and neck, substantially improved by levodopa. Skeletal abnormalities included scoliosis and hypertrophy of the mandibular coronoid process. A heterozygous de novo loss-of-function variant in SOX6 (c.277 C>T. p.Arg93*) was molecularly confirmed which leads to truncation of the SOX6 protein in its N-terminus, upstream of any known functional domain.
Conclusion: SOX6-associated neurodevelopmental delayis ultrarare with less than 25 cases described in the literature. We report a new case who presented with early-onset mildly reduced intellectual function, facial asymmetry, skeletal abnormalities and dystonic tremor of hands and neck, substantially improved by levodopa. Given the therapeutic implications, SOX6 mutations should be considered in patients with complex dystonia parkinsonism.