Mutational and Phenotypic Expansion of ATP1A3-related Disorders: Report of Nine Cases.

July 30, 2020

Ponghatai Boonsimma 1, Marius Michael Gasser 2, Wiracha Netbaramee 3, Thanin Wechapinan 4, Chalurmpon Srichomthong 1, Chupong Ittiwut 1, Matias Wagner 5, Martin Krenn 6, Fritz Zimprich 7, Angela Abicht 8, Saskia Biskup 9, Timo Roser 2, Ingo Borggraefe 10, Kanya Suphapeetiporn 11, Vorasuk Shotelersuk 1.


Background: Mutations in the ATP1A3 gene are known to be the cause of three distinct neurological syndromes including alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (RDP) and cerebellar ataxia, arefexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy and sensorineural hearing impairment (CAPOS). Recent studies have suggested the broader diversity of ATP1A3-related disorders. This study aimed to investigate the clinical spectrum in patients carrying causative mutations within the ATP1A3 gene.

Method: The medical histories of nine unrelated patients with diverse phenotypes harboring variants in ATP1A3 were retrospectively analyzed after they were referred to a tertiary epilepsy center in one of the two different health care systems (Germany or Thailand). Clinical features, neurophysiological data, imaging results, genetic characteristics and treatments were reviewed.

Results: Three patients harbor novel mutations in the ATP1A3 gene. Atypical clinical features and imaging findings were observed in two cases, one with hemiplegia-hemiconvulsion-epilepsy syndrome, and the other with neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. All nine patients presented with intellectual impairment. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) was the most common phenotype (67%). Flunarizine and topiramate led to symptom reduction in 83% and 25% of AHC cases administered, respectively.

Conclusion: The present case series expands the clinical and genetic spectrum of ATP1A3-related disorders.