Purpose: To report a new genetic mutation in the COL4A1 gene, which was identified in a baby girl with Peters anomaly (PA), a rare anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis, which is characterized by unilateral or bilateral corneal opacities often accompanied by glaucoma, cataract, and systemic malformations and associated with various genetic mutations.
Methods: Ophthalmologic examination of one baby girl and whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing of blood samples of the child and her biological parents were performed.
Results: Ophthalmologic examination led to the diagnosis of PA type I in the baby girl. Whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing identified the de novo mutation c.181_189delinsAGGTTTCCG; p.Gly61Arg in the COL4A1 gene in the child, whereas no other putatively causative variants in established genes associated with anterior segment dysgenesis were present.
Conclusions: PA might be associated with the mutation c.181_189delinsAGGTTTCCG; p.Gly61Arg in the COL4A1 gene. The COL4A1 gene encodes for collagen IVα1, an essential component of basal membranes, and mutations are associated with an increased risk for renal and cerebrovascular disorders and stroke. This should be considered when advising and monitoring patients.